Hold STX, Earn BTC
Stacking is locking your STX temporarily to support the network’s security and consensus. As a reward, you’ll earn the Bitcoin that miners transfer as part of Proof of Transfer.
*Active participation in consensus required.
Stacking Made Easy
Help secure a better internet built on Bitcoin.
*APY is based on a number of dynamic factors, you can check specifics of the current cycle and even your specific reward slots at stacking.club.
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What is Stacking?
Support the network
Stacking is a critical part of the Stacks network. It helps Stacks reach consensus, stay secure, and process transactions. Stacking is part of the Proof of Transfer consensus mechanism.

About Proof of Transfer
Earn rewards
When you stack, you can earn Bitcoin every cycle (a collection of Bitcoin blocks). How much you’ll earn can vary from cycle to cycle depending on how much BTC miners transfer and how much STX participates.

The reward model
Meet the requirements
You don’t have to run a node or validate transactions to stack — all you need to do is lock your STX in your wallet temporarily. To participate, you need to meet the minimum amount of STX for a full reward slot or pool together with others.
Purchase Stacks Cryptocurrency
Stacks (STX) are available on:
Staking vs. Stacking
Understand the key differences
(e.g. Tezos, Cosmos, Cardano)
Only possible with Stacks (STX)
User funds might be slashed based on network activity
Your funds never leave your wallet, and there's no risk of losing them
Requires high uptime and guarantees from nodes
No special hardware required. Users can participate on their own through the STX wallet or through providers
Funds received from staking generally sold to offset maintenance and uptime costs, creating potential for market sell pressure
Earnings are paid in BTC, but the reward generating asset is STX, meaning there is no added sell pressure for STX
Staking vs. Stacking
(e.g. Tezos, Cosmos, Cardano)
User funds might be slashed based on network activity
Requires special hardware to run nodes
Funds received from staking generally sold to offset maintenance and uptime costs, contributing to market sell pressure
Only possible with STX
Your funds never leave your wallet, and there's no risk of losing them.
No special hardware required. Users can participate on their own through the STX wallet or through providers.
Earnings are paid in BTC, but the reward generating asset is STX. This means there's no added sell pressure for STX.
Expected Market Pressure Based on Behavior
Behavior Profile
Staking (Proof of Stake)
Stacking (Proof of Transfer)
Person A:
Someone who "minimally participates." Meaning this person holds a certain amount of the Stacking or Staking token, participates with those tokens, but wants to take their earnings away and move on.
Action: Sell Staking Earnings

Market Pressure: Downward ⬇
Action: Sell Bitcoin Earnings

Market Pressure: None ↔
Person B:
Someone who "maximally participates." Meaning this person holds a certain amount of Stacking or Staking token, participates with those tokens, and wants to reinvest all of their earnings to grow their participation.
Action: Do nothing

Market Pressure: None ↔
Action: Buy Stacks with Earnings

Market Pressure: Upward ⬆
STX is the native token of the Stacks ecosystem.
Learn more about STX and meet major holders
Stacks cryptocurrency enables smart contracts and apps for Bitcoin and allows holders to earn BTC. Stacks (STX) are used as fuel for smart contract execution, transaction processing, and digital asset registrations on the Stacks 2.0 blockchain. STX are a unique crypto asset that can be locked by STX holders via 'Stacking' to earn Bitcoin (BTC) rewards from the protocol for supporting blockchain consensus. Stacks cryptocurrency was distributed to the general public through the first-ever SEC qualified token offering in US history.
Where do bitcoin rewards come from?
  • The novel consensus mechanism that connects the two blockchains is called Proof of Transfer. Proof of Transfer is an upgrade to the traditional Proof of Work consensus mechanism used to secure the Bitcoin blockchain and others that have followed.
  • In Proof of Transfer, miners transfer the committed cryptocurrency to some other participant in the network. This allows network participants, who are adding value to new cryptocurrency network, to earn rewards in a base cryptocurrency by actively participating in the consensus algorithm.
  • Miners of the STX chain bid to lead a block and earn the STX coinbase reward by sending Bitcoin. That Bitcoin is sent directly to participating STX hodlers, called "Stackers."
  • Miners arbitrage rates between market value for STX and the cost to lead a block. This makes mining more like an exchange pair, and holders can know that STX will always be priced in Bitcoin.
Can I pool STX to earn rewards?
Pooling is supported at the protocol level through a delegation function. STX holders can delegate their STX to participate in Stacking with others. The Stacks Foundation does not run a pooling service directly, but the Stacking partners listed above provide these options to STX holders interested in Stacking, but don't meet the minimum alone.
Is Stacking the main use case for STX?
First, a reminder that Stacking is a benefit to the novel PoX consensus mechanism, but the core function of STX goes above and beyond receiving in Stacking rewards. Stacks cryptocurrencyis designed primarily to be used as fuel to execute Clarity smart contracts. Stacks are also used for other network functions like registering digital assets, paying for transaction fees, and to publish Clarity contracts on the blockchain. See the Stacks explorer for transaction info, and this list of Clarity smart contracts for more context on what is possible on Stacks 2.0. 
What is the history of Stacking and who can make changes to Stacking now? 
The PoX whitepaper that shared the first concept of Stacking was shared in Feb. 2020, and the team built out the functionality, along with the rest of complexity of the Stacks 2.0 blockchain over the following ~1 year. We’re thrilled to watch the first Stackers receive Bitcoin rewards. Stacking is a completely new mechanism and a pretty complex process, and given the launch of the Stacks 2.0 blockchain by independent miners, Stacking is now an independent mechanism that is live in the wild. 

Hiro PBC can’t change anything about Stacking at the protocol level and encourage everyone to provide their feedback in Stacks Improvement proposals as outlined here. We appreciate early community members sharing feedback and suggestions for the Stacks wallet
How do Stacks rewards work and why is there variation in earnings?
To start, a refresher on proof of transfer consensus and how it works. Excerpt from the PoX whitepaper below: 

In PoX, the consensus rules select the winning miner (i.e., the leader) of a round using a verifiable random function (VRF). The leader writes the next block of the Stacks blockchain and mints the rewards (newly minted Stacks). However, in PoX, instead of sending Bitcoin to burn addresses, miners send the Bitcoin to a set of specific addresses corresponding to other network participants.

There is a direct correlation between bitcoin sent to mine each STX block and rewards sent to corresponding stacking slots. Given blocks are mined at different values depending on miner behavior, reward slots will also see variation in BTC earnings over time. There have been a few occasions ~5% where “flash blocks” on the Bitcoin blockchain cause skips of the Stacks blockchain, which means a small minority of people may not receive BTC rewards at all on some cycles, but the vast majority ~95% will receive rewards — especially over extended periods of time and multiple stacking slots. 
What is the Stacking cycle timeline? 
The PoX cycle consists of generally two parts: 
  • 100 block prepare phase: reward participants must broadcast signed messages for three purposes: 1) Indicating to the network how many STX should be locked up, and for how many reward cycles. 2) Indicate support for a particular chain tip — this is the work that consensus participants contribute and 3) Specifying the Bitcoin address for receiving rewards. Folks participating in Stacking via the Stacks wallet must enroll before the prepare phase starts. 
  • 2000 block reward cycle: period when STX are locked and in queue to receive rewards. Stackers may receive your stacking rewards at any time of this duration. Rewards are sent completely at random: there is no insight for folks to mine an additional amount so that they might receive greater earnings. 
Tell me more about with dynamic thresholds to Stack via the Stacks wallet
Each reward cycle may transfer miner funds to up to 4000 Bitcoin addresses. In order to send this volume of transactions, thresholds to participate natively in Stacking are dynamic based on amount of liquid supply that is participating. 

By end-Jan 2021 approximately 1,006M (1B) liquid STX, thresholds are as follows:
  • Assume 25% of liquid supply is participating, the min threshold is 70k STX (~62.5k STX rounded up to the nearest 10,000)
  • Assume 50% of liquid supply is participating, the min threshold is 130k STX (~125k STX rounded up to the nearest 10,000)

At present-day calculations, 70k STX will be the threshold up to 250M STX participation. As of Fri. Jan 29th there were 112M STX participating. 

In the event that a Stacker signals and locks up enough STX to submit multiple reward addresses, but only submits one reward address, that reward address will be included in the reward set multiple times. In the event that not all 4000 reward slots are taken, bitcoin rewards are burnt. 

While anyone can provide metrics and visibility given the open nature of the network, the team at Hiro PBC is working on a tool to provide more immediate insights to changing participation levels. Until then the Stacks Wallet by Hiro PBC allows Stackers to stack only in intervals of the correct stacking amount. 
What if the threshold changes while my STX are locked? 
Stackers can add additional stacks to their stacking slots to adjust to changing thresholds by following this FAQ should stacking thresholds change before their STX have unlocked. The key thing to keep in mind is that stacking reward slots are designated by both the amount of STX locked but primarily, Stacking slots are designated by their corresponding Bitcoin address.
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